The project improved knowledge on the water quality of the Niger river near Bamako, Mali, by collecting physico-chemical and bacteriologocal pollution indicators. This was done by using new technologies for data collection, storage and analysis. Akvo Caddisfly was introduced as well as an underwater drone. The generation of data has enabled different actors to be better informed on data on water quality of River Niger in Bamako and surroundings.
The project accomplished:
- Measurements water quality of the Niger River in Bamako
- Central database creation and data visualization (www.q-eau-mali.net)
- Continuous communication and sharing information on river water quality
- Water quality measurement plan using innovative tools such as smartphones & submarine drones, introduction of Caddisfly
Tips for the future
- It is difficult to have highly sophisticated technology, imported from abroad, function properly and continuously.
- When working on a government agency project, assuring continuous financing through a separate budgetline within the Ministry is recommended. This assures sustainability.
Potential for growth
The methodology can be introduced in different parts of the river Niger. However, financing is needed for that. The continuous financial support from the government does not suffice. Introducing and enforcing a polluter-pays-principle can be a solution.
ABFN (Agence Basin du Fleuve Niger), Indymo, CNU, Laboratoire National des Eaux.
July 2017 – December 2018
Last project updates
The hydrographical network of the Niger River in Mali is an exceptional natural heritage. The Niger River crosses the country over a distance of 1750 km, and 42% of its total length. About ¼ of the Malian territory is within its basin and 85% of the population directly or indirectly lives from its resources. Bamako, political, economic and cultural District of Mali, like rest of country, shows great dependence of Niger River. Located between 12 ° 30'00 '' and 12 ° 44'00 '' north latitude and 7 ° 54'00 '' and 8 ° 4'00''W longitude, straddling on Niger River, Bamako is built in a basin surrounded by hills. Its perimeter occupies 267 km² area in Niger River’s valley, which flows from West to East. The river crosses the city for about twenty kilometers. The minor bed has an average width about 850 m, delineating an aquatic area about 17 km2 (7% of district area). The bottom of minor bed consists mainly of sandstone and fractured blocks. At the crossing of city, several tributaries discharge into the river mainly: Woyowayanko, Diafaranako, Sokonafing, Bangoumana, Balassokoni, Balassokoba, Djiblenba, Korofina, Molobalini, Farakoba on the shore Left and Dougoulédji, Djikoro, Sogoniko, Niamakoro, Flabougouko, Koliflatié, Koumako, and Babla. Bamako concentrated, in 2009, 55.2% of the total urban population of Mali. The annual growth rate of this population is estimated at about 5.8%. At this rate, it will double every 14 years. The demographic dynamics of Bamako was accompanied by a spatial dynamics. The area of the District has increased from 1200 ha in 1960 to 26700 ha in 2009. The emergence of spontaneous neighborhoods is considered to be the sign of a "wild" urbanization. This demographic and spatial growth has not been accompanied by a substantial urbanization plan. In addition, the collection network for domestic and non-industrial wastewater is very poorly developed and in poor condition. Bamako Development Master Plan (SDAB) 2008, based on 1998 population data, estimated the overall rate of "sewerage availability" at the district level at 3.6%. Distortions stemming from insufficient and/or inadequacy of individual, semi-collective and collective sanitation infrastructures, poor management of domestic, artisanal, commercial waste and urban growth make it Niger River which finally receives all this waste without prior treatment.
The risks of water river pollution are criticized by all the actors. But the few measurements made on water quality are fragmentary and under the seal of the right of ownership, therefore not accessible to ordinary citizens. Currently, there is no systematic monitoring of water quality, any system that allows information sharing on water quality. There are no early warning systems to anticipate decision-making. In its preliminary phase, the project will be limited to Bamako and its surroundings, on the section of the Niger River from Kalabanbougou to Moribabougou. Bamako is the administrative, economic and political district of Mali with more than 2 million people. Bamako is home to more than 2/3 of the country's industrial units. These units are located not far from the river and often on its banks. To these industrial units are added the dyeing activities in all the communes of District. The project will involve several civil society actors through the Coordination of resources users of Niger River in Mali, such as fishermen, dyers, maraichers, gravel and sand extractors, etc. Other actors such as industrialists will also be involved, as will the universities and technical departments interested by water quality of Niger River. The generation of reliable and continuous data will enable policy-makers to make informed decisions; Improvement of river water quality will reduce treatment costs and impact on drinking water quality at the household level. Project hopes to accomplish: - Measurements water quality of the Niger River in Bamako; - Central database creation and data visualization - Continuous communication and sharing information on river water quality - Defining the priority data and information requirements of the main stakeholders to ensure they have the information to take targeted action to improve the water quality; Specific goals will be reached through - Water quality measurement plan using innovative tools such as smartphones, submarine drones in combination with satellite monitoring; - Map the stakeholders and projects active on water quality around the Niger in Bamako and present this information in the same central repository. - Elaboration of central repository to collect these data, to combine them with others (already existing) and to visualize the data flows in such a way that the data becomes information on which policies can be based;
The project will involve several civil society actors. Through the Coordination of resources users of Niger River in Mali, Project will use its network associations to reach the different groups (such as fishermen, dyers, maraichers, gravel and sand extractors, etc.) by informing them about from the methods, implementation and results of project. To this end, the project team will develop appropriate and comprehensible communication materials (graphic posters, pollution maps, political notes, press releases, etc.) for the different target groups. Some of these materials will be translated in local languages for better dissemination. University will also involved through University of Science and Technology and National School of Engineers (Department of Hydro-Ecology) of Bamako to the project through research’s theses by students will guarantee the sustainability of some of the achievements of the project. Students from the university will be involved in making this assessment as part of their research work. They will also be able to participate in the measurement campaigns. Also there will be given an opportunity for UNESCO students - IHE to do research work for their master degree. Other actors such as industrialists will also be involved and technical departments interested by water quality of Niger River. The generation of reliable and continuous data will enable policy-makers to make informed decisions; Improvement of river water quality will reduce treatment costs and impact on drinking water quality at the household level.
The major aim of our project is to ensure the project is both sustainable and scalable. Sustainable means that the project-activities are continued after the project. Scalable means that the project-activities can be used as an example to also starts similar activities in the larger Niger basin and in other river basins around the world. To ensure financial sustainability, the project was registered in the Special Investment Budget (BCI) during the budgetary arbitrations of July 2017. The Government of Mali will thus plan an annual budget allocation (2018 and more). Each year the project will benefit from a budget allocation not only for perpetuation of its gains, but their extension to other urban areas in Mali bordering the Niger River. Once the "user-payer" and "polluter-payer" collection mechanism is operational, the ABFN will have sufficient financial resources for the continuation of the activity and its extension on a broad scale. At the institutional level, this project is in line with the National Program for Safeguarding of Niger River (PNS-FN), which was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Mali during its Council of Ministers held on 19 August 2016. The PNS-FN, w Continuous involvement of volunteers Volunteers involved ihich is implemented by the ABFN, takes charge the program No. 3 of the Ministry of Environment, Sanitation and Sustainable Development, namely "the safeguarding and integrated management of the resources of the Niger River basin in Mali". Thus, the objective of the PNS-FN is to contribute to the realization and capitalization of all actions contributing to maintain the Niger River in a state enabling it to play its economic, mobility, environmental, social and cultural functions in Mali. For technical sustainability, training courses given by Akvo and Indymo on the use of the various equipment and the creation of the database will enable the staff to continue the activities of the project after its completion. Once ABFN project team and partners are well trained with Akvo's support, they will be able to strengthen other teams on other parts of the Niger River. Throughout the project, active contact will be kept with the stakeholders to ensure the data and information is matching their priorities. Furthermore, throughout the project, this task will identify any other data on water quality in the Niger that could be added to the repository. Continuous involvement of volunteers Volunteers involved in the collection of data will be those whose lives depend directly on the exploitation of the resources of the river such as fishermen, dyers who use and pollute the river water, sand operators, etc. Water pollution increases their level of fishermen's poverty. Consequently, any activity related to this pollution concerns them in more than one way. The process of their continued involvement will be as follows: - Capacity building for volunteers - They will be responsible not only for the collection of data but also for the dissemination of the results. - All information from the volunteers after the end of the project, will be credited to them.
Overview of Goals
The overall objective of project is to improve water quality of Niger River in Bamako and surrounding. In short term, our project will address those challenges and provide a strong basis to develop efficient plans to address the pollution in the Niger, by: - Defining the priority data and information requirements of the main stakeholders to ensure they have the information to take targeted action to improve the water quality. - Continuously measuring the water quality in the Niger in Bamako, making use of innovative tools for human monitoring and in-situ monitoring in combination with satellite monitoring. - Developing one central repository to collect this data, combine it with other (already existing) data streams and visualize it in such a way that the data becomes information on which policies can be based. - Map the stakeholders and projects active on water quality around the Niger in Bamako and present this information in the same central repository. - Bring together and activate more stakeholders by enabling them to measure water quality themselves and by providing public access to the overall data via the CNU network. - Using innovative smart-phone based tools will ensure that people that are involved in water quality measuring will have the data directly available – on the spot of measurement.
Results and indicators
- Mapping of stakeholders
- Stakeholder Analysis Report a stakeholder analysis report ( target )
- This report present actors and active project on water quality in Bamako and surroundings
- Continuously measuring the water quality of Niger River in Bamako
- Number of measurements taken by smartephone 45 ( target )
- The indicator gives the nomber of points that will be referenced and measured during the lifespan of the project.
- Number of measurements taken by underwater drone 1 ( target )
- Using the Indymo underwater drone. The underwater drone will be used for 2 times 5 days during the project
- Number of people trained 20 ( target )
- The overall objective of these training courses is to contribute to the strengthening of the partners' capacities for the successful implementation of the project. Specifically, the trainings will cover Akvo Flow and Caddisfly, Akvo Lumen, Akvo Sites and the use of underwater drones
- Communication and sharing information
- Consultation session by target group 1 ( target )
- To know and understand the interest of each target group in relation to the pollution of the river related to its profession
- Nomber of communication plan developpeded and implemented ( target )
- ensure that people that are involved in water quality will have the data directly available
- Central data repository and data visualisation
- The central data repository is created and functional ( target )
- Number of data or database from other structures; A functional link exists between the data center, the observatories of WI, ABN and SNIE